γ-Aminobutyric Acid, C4H9NO2, M=103,1 g/mol.
GABA is the most important inhibitoric neurotransmitter of the central nervous systems, which can bind to the GABA-receptors in the brain, thus reducing the neuronal excitement. Between 20-50% of all central synapses use GABA as their transmitter.
Physiological GABA is formed from Glutamate by the Glutamic Acid-Decarboxylase in presence of pyridoxal phosphate. This converts directly the excitatory neurotransmitter Glutamate into an inhibotoric neurotransmitter. GABA can be reconverted by the enzyme GABA-Transaminase back to Glutamate.
The Effect of GABA can be influenced by several medicaments. Especially the Benzodiazepines strengthen the GABA effectivity, because they also dock at the GABA-receptor.