Benzodiazepines are used for the brief treatment of sleep disturbances which are caused by fear, excitation or internal unrest, but are also abused. While suicides with benzodiazepines do not occur, the danger exists by strengthening effect with simultaneous consumption with other CNS effective substances as alcohol, barbiturates, opioids etc., which often leads to deaths. Some preparations were used also as K.O.-drugs or Date-Rape-Drugs.
All benzodiazepines are docking in special connection places of the nerve cells in the central nervous system (GABAA-receptors) and strengthen the effect of the body-own messenger γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA restrains the activity of nerve cells and works thereby against sleep-knocking, eases muscles and solves cramps.
Benzodiazepines are reducing the conscious perception and the intensity of feelings, in addition reducing the internal tension and absorbing aggressions.
Benzodiazepines are making tired and are reducing the attention and concentration. Thus it can come to impairments when leading motor vehicles or serving machines. Likewise, at the beginning of the income or for dose increases, restrictions of the mental and intellectual efficiency are particularly indicated. Benzodiazepine should not be given during the pregnancy, since it crosses into the mother's milk. Already after an uptake of a period of 4 weeks, a psychological dependence can develop. No tendency exists for dose increase. Frequently formation of konjugates occures (Glucuronidates) preceding the elimination over urine and bile. The metabolism is particularly various: N-desalkylation, hydroxylilation, desamination, reduction, acetylation, N-oxidation and hydrolysis lead to numerous metabolits.