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Illegal admission of medicines or illegal drugs with the intention of enhancing performance in sports. The following data refer to the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) of 02-01-2010.

The following methods are forbidden:

  • increase of the transportation capacity for oxygen (blood doping)
  • pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation
  • gene doping

The list of the generally forbidden substances (in- and out-of-cmpetition) covers altogether 5 groups of substances:

In addition the following 4 categories are prohibited in competition:

In particular sports these substances could be prohibited:

Doping is not a new phenomenon: in ancient Greece sheeps testicles were consumed. In the 1904 Olympics, Th. Hicks won the marathon gold medal and collapsed. He had taken brandy mixed with cocaine.

In most sports, controls such as urine and blood tests are now being made to check for doping among top level athletes.

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Last modification (M-D-Y): 02/08/2019 - IMPRINT - FAQ