Nightshade Drugs
 
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To the nightshade family (Solanaceae) count some genera, which contain the nightshade drugs atropine and/or hyoscyamine as well as scopolamine to the largest part, partly also independent contents materials exhibit (nicotine in the tobacco, solanine in the nightshade and the green parts of the potato).

Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum)

A nightshade plant occurring in the Mediterranean countries. On earth lying rosette of egg-shaped-oblong sheets and violet blooms. The root becomes long up to 60 cm and contains up to 0,5 % solanaceae alkaloids (atropine and/or (R,S)-hyoscyamine, scopolamine). Charm drug of the antiquity and the Middle Ages, tranquilizer with pain conditions.

Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger)

Strong malicious, belonged to the family of the nightshade plants, 20-80 cm high one year's herb with oblong sheets and yellow blooms with violet veins, contains L-hyoscyamine (0,06 - 0,17 %), which can already cause heaviest symptoms of intoxication in small quantities up to death in all plant parts of alkaloids, particularly. In the Mediterranean countries the white henbane, Hyoscyamus albus, common, a 10-50 cm high herb with sulfur-yellow, inside low violet colored blooms with same effect as with the black henbane. In the Middle Ages "witches" are to have made flight albums "of henbane", in order to fly thereby to the block mountain.

Angel trumpet (Brugmansia)

Angel trumpet. © Algeier-FöllNightshade plant out of South America with 20-30 cm long trumpet-similar blooms, planted now also as ornamental plant in European gardens. The chemical active substances are scopolamine and hyoscyamine. The dried sheets and blooms are smoked or taken orally as tea. A half-hour after ingestion it comes to visions and illusions, which can change into hallucinations. These hallucinogenic effects can persist, depending upon dose, between 3 hours and 3 days. Overdosing can lead to symptoms of intoxication (swallowing difficulties, hoarseness, dryness of the mucous membranes, urine barrier, heart lawn) up to deaths by heartbeat disturbances and ventricular fibrillations.

Night shade (Solanum nigrum L.)

All parts of the 10-80cm high plant, with violet blooms, scarlet mature berries, stack, sheets, unripe fruits are strongly poisonous. Poison material is predominantly solanine, which affects strongly attractive the mucous membranes (scratching and burning in the neck). Nausea, vomiting, sweats and headache are reference to a poisoning. In the case of overdosing fear conditions, cramps, heart weakness, heartbeat disturbances, unconsciousness and difficulty in breathing arise. Already 6-10 unripe berries can be deadly for an adult, death occur by a breath paralysis.

Datura (Datura stramonium)

Original from North America coming nightshade plant. 30-120cm high one-year's herb with 20 cm long sheets, white or violet blooms and stinging leagues fruits. It contains predominantly (S)-hyoscyamine, young plants also scopolamine, thus the hallucinogenic effect outweighs. Physical effects exist in mouth dryness, visual disturbances, disturbance of equilibrium, when overdosing in the worst case in heartbeat disturbances and coma. Already starting from 15 seeds of datura deadly complications are to be expected. 50-150 cm high bush with egg-shaped sheets, violet blooms and in condition black berries mature.

Belladonna (Atropa Belladonna)

Beside the belladonna with black fruits there is a variant with yellow fruits and pale-yellow blooms. It contains in all parts (S)-hyoscyamine with the highest concentration in the sheets (up to 1,5 %), in the fruits 0.7 %. (S)-hyoscyamine serves today also as antidote (remedy) with poisonings by plant protection agents or nerve gases.

Mad herb (Scopolia carniolica)

Up to 60 cm high plant of several years with red-brown, bell-shaped blooms. All plant parts contain the alkaloid (S)-hyoscyamine, leading by poissoning to mouth dryness, skin turning red as well as pupil dilation. The hallucinogenic effect leads to speech urge, hallucinations and epileptic accumulations. With high dosage it can come to deaths by breath paralysis.

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Last modification (M-D-Y): 02/08/2019 - IMPRINT - FAQ