[3-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)indol-4-yl]dihydrogenphosphat, C12H17N2O4P, M 284,3 g/mol
Psilocybin is the major hallucinogenic constituent of Mexican mushrooms of the genera Psilocybe and some related species. Mushroom excerpts from hallucinogenic working small yellow or black mushrooms in Mexico (also Theo Nanacatl - God meat, Quatlanacatl or "magic mushrooms") became eaten on ritual opportunities (e.g. a coronation/culmination ceremony or God celebrations) and led to trance similar conditions, which could be sounded partly euphorically, partly fearfully.
Psilocybe semilanceata is the common kind in Europe. Lately also psilocybin containing mushrooms are bred. The active substance content is appropriate 0,01 % up to 2 %, usually approx. 1 %, related to the dry substance. The usual consumer form is the oral consumption of the the durable making dried mushrooms. With repeated consumption tolerance develops, which fades away however with abstinence again. The psychoactive substance is Psilocin, which is formed in the body by dephosphorylation (splitting off of the phosphate group) by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase.
The psychological effect of Psilocybin in small doses of 8-12 milligram resembles LSD, lasts however smaller time on (four to six hours). Because of the shorter duration of effect and the religious mystic experience Psilocybin was used also in the psychotherapy.
Physical dangers by Psilocybin are not well known. However, so-called "bad trips" are observed. In some cases by only one Psilocybin intoxication a durable schizophrenia was released.